Collaborative operation of transportation networks requires the interconnection of systems and the sharing of information among the operators.
If advances have been done in the predictability of each subsystem , predictability of the whole heterogeneous system is still challenge.
Connected to the "Maintenance cost management" driver mentioned above, predictive maintenance is an important topic to ease the maintenance of transportation systems and other complex systems.
Vehicle to infrastructure interactivity can revolutionize the way transportation infrastructures are operated by developing more direct and user centric information with travellers instead of classical information panels.
New mobility based services such as geo localisation, interactive time table and environment information should be proposed by the transport operators for public.
Continue to support research and development activities in sensors, embedded systems and telecommunications. Technologies such as sensor networks and autonomous system are enabling technologies to build SoS.
It seems difficult to deploy large-scale SoS concerning strategic assets on the current offer of cloud services on the market. Each professional may implement its own cloud but it would require technical and financial efforts and lead to more classical architecture not necessary related to cloud computing.
One of the potential benefits of SoS is the possibility to monitor and control in real-time large complex systems. Real-time operation is present in most industrial domains, including transportation networks.
Sensing is an integral part of SoS. Many innovations have been done in this field in the last decade and the amount of sensor used has increased continuously.
Standardisation is one of the most important aspects to be developed. The development of standard terminology and standard system interfaces are necessary steps to further develop SoS in the industry.
In public sectors such as smart cities and smart transportations, there is a need to build realistic demonstrators.
For each industrial field of study, processes are geographically distributed which naturally comes into account in system architecture. Distributed decision making is also present in all surveyed domains and mainly designed to help taking informed decisions in large systems.
Demand for mobility based services enable all operators to share the same knowledge about the current situation. Doing so, new multi-modal traveller services can be developed in collaborative projects .
Technology boundaries like different sensor networks, different communication protocols or different software complicate the interconnection of transportation systems and have direct impact on the maintenance costs of the global system.
Secured communication networks are one of the most important challenges in SoS as it is built by connecting systems that were not necessary designed to work together. At the same time, communication security must be enforced as SoS often concern strategic assets.
The number of operators in charge of traffic control imposes the traffic data to be shared and open data technologies to be used in SoS.
Societal acceptance is necessary for spreading SoS as private data will be exchanged and shared
Part of the SoS implementation issues in transportation are depending on architecture design and modelling as there is no architecture available today to build SoS.
These technologies will enable the development of large and complex systems in all domains of interest (manufacturing, energy, transport and emergency)
Operators will have to share business models of their own infrastructure and use such from other stakeholders.
Energy harvesting is needed for reducing the energy and the maintenance costs of infrastructure
Multimodal traffic specific architectures are required to enable coordination as the transportation networks are operated though geographically distributed control centres
Infrastructure cost is a main barrier for SoS development
Project management by risk modelling techniques is needed for SoS development projects
If standard networking protocol are available today (like TCP-IP), some legacy systems may be out of these standards and require some adaptation or going through an intermediary middleware.
This is related to the "Vehicle to infrastructure interactivity" need. V2V and V2I are both perceived as a technology and a need because, if the technologies are ready, these systems are not yet spread in consumer vehicles
Today, decision making in transportation is done in control centres that are independent and rather closed, with a clearly defined perimeter of action.
...is in line with cloud computing and can be handled nicely by applying this technology
SoS transportation systems should be able the configured automatically, at least partially